使用OsmSharp处理OpenStreetMap(OSM)数据

OsmSharp是一个基于.NET的OpenStreetMap(OSM)库。
本文对OsmSharp做了简单的介绍,并使用OsmSharp对OSM数据做了常用的数据处理、数据库的存储和应用(路径规划),提供了一些关键代码。

OpenStreetMap数据模型

OSM数据有三个基本对象:Node,Way,Relation。更多信息请查看OSM-wiki
OpenStreetMap数据模型

OsmSharp介绍

OsmSharp可以在直接.NET中使用OSM数据,其主要功能有:

  • Read/Write OSM-XML.
  • Read/Write OSM-PBF.
  • Streamed architecture, minimal memory footprint.
  • Convert a stream of native OSM objects to ‘complete’ OSM objects: Ways with all their actual nodes, Relations with all members instantiated.
  • Convert OSM objects to geometries.

协作项目

OsmSharp做过与地图相关的很多事情:路径规划、数据处理、渲染矢量数据。下面是OsmSharp与.NET平台的协作项目:

  • NetTopologySuite(NTS):一个地理库,可以将其与OsmSharp.Geo一起使用,将OSM数据转换为shapefile或过滤一些数据将其转换为GeoJSON。
  • ltinero:.NET的路径规划项目。OsmSharp.Routing作为OsmSharp的一部分,现更名为ltinero。
  • Mapsui:Mapsui是WPF,Xamarin.Android,Xamarin.iOS和UWP应用程序的.NET Map组件。

流模型(Streaming Model)

OsmSharp使用流模型处理OSM数据。所有流模型都实现了泛型IEnumerable<T>接口,这就意味着可以使用LINQ查询处理。
流模型(Streaming Model)

  • OsmStreamSource:
    XmlOsmStreamSource:读OSM-XML文件
    PBFOsmStreamSource:读OSM-PBF文件
  • OsmStreamTarget:
    XmlOsmStreamTarget:写OSM-XML文件
    PBFOsmStreamTarget:写OSM-PBF文件
  • OsmStreamFilter:
    OsmStreamFilterDelegate
    OsmStreamFilterMerge
    OsmStreamFilterNode
    OsmStreamFilterProgress

读OSM-PBF文件

luxembourg-latest.osm.pbf

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// 读取"luxembourg-latest.osm.pbf"的node、way、relation个数

// 创建StreamSource
var source = new PBFOsmStreamSource(File.OpenRead("luxembourg-latest.osm.pbf"));
int nodes = 0, ways = 0, relations = 0;
foreach (var osmGeo in source)
{
if (osmGeo.Type == OsmGeoType.Node)
{
nodes++;
}
if (osmGeo.Type == OsmGeoType.Way)
{
ways++;
}
if (osmGeo.Type == OsmGeoType.Relation)
{
relations++;
}
}
Console.WriteLine("There are {0} nodes, {1} ways, {2} relations.", nodes, ways, relations);
// 输出:There are 1721051 nodes, 223718 ways, 2511 relations.

LINQ查询过滤数据

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// 创建StreamSource
var source = new PBFOsmStreamSource(File.OpenRead("luxembourg-latest.osm.pbf"));
int nodes = 0, ways = 0, relations = 0;
// 使用LINQ查询用户名为"Stilmant Michael"的数据
var filtered = from osmGeo in source where osmGeo.UserName == "Stilmant Michael" select osmGeo;
foreach (var osmGeo in filtered)
{
if (osmGeo.Type == OsmGeoType.Node)
{
nodes++;
}
if (osmGeo.Type == OsmGeoType.Way)
{
ways++;
}
if (osmGeo.Type == OsmGeoType.Relation)
{
relations++;
}
}
Console.WriteLine("There are {0} nodes, {1} ways, {2} relations are edited by Stilmant Michael.", nodes, ways, relations);
// 输出:There are 762 nodes, 77 ways, 0 relations are edited by Stilmant Michael.

写入OSM-XML文件

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// 创建StreamSource
var source = new PBFOsmStreamSource(File.OpenRead("luxembourg-latest.osm.pbf"));
// 过滤
var filterd = from osmGeo in source where osmGeo.UserName == "Stilmant Michael" select osmGeo;
// 创建StreamTarget
var target = new XmlOsmStreamTarget(File.Open("filtered.osm", FileMode.Create));
// 写入
target.RegisterSource(filterd);
target.Pull();

打开”filtered.osm”文件可查看内容,如下:

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<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<osm version="0.6" generator="OsmSharp">
<node id="25922353" lat="49.50871" lon="6.010775" user="Stilmant Michael" uid="26290" visible="true" version="36766" changeset="9218254" timestamp="2011-09-05T14:27:47Z">
<tag k="highway" v="crossing" />
<tag k="crossing" v="uncontrolled" />
</node>
<node id="245921260" lat="49.60019" lon="6.124797" user="Stilmant Michael" uid="26290" visible="true" version="10362" changeset="44411" timestamp="2008-02-05T12:37:48Z" />
<node id="245923096" lat="49.5063" lon="6.013138" user="Stilmant Michael" uid="26290" visible="true" version="10516" changeset="9218254" timestamp="2011-09-05T14:27:46Z">
<tag k="highway" v="crossing" />
<tag k="crossing" v="uncontrolled" />
</node>
<node id="245923278" lat="49.50129" lon="6.014411" user="Stilmant Michael" uid="26290" visible="true" version="10557" changeset="44411" timestamp="2008-02-05T12:57:49Z" />
<node id="245923344" lat="49.49693" lon="6.009622" user="Stilmant Michael" uid="26290" visible="true" version="10571" changeset="44411" timestamp="2008-02-05T12:59:12Z" />
<node id="245923345" lat="49.49725" lon="6.009501" user="Stilmant Michael" uid="26290" visible="true" version="10572" changeset="44411" timestamp="2008-02-05T12:59:12Z" />
<!-- 略 -->
<way id="22921571" user="Stilmant Michael" uid="26290" visible="true" version="1" changeset="87062" timestamp="2008-02-09T16:29:01Z">
<nd ref="246813086" />
<nd ref="246813087" />
<nd ref="246813088" />
<nd ref="246813089" />
<tag k="foot" v="yes" />
<tag k="highway" v="footway" />
<tag k="created_by" v="Potlatch 0.7" />
</way>
<way id="22921581" user="Stilmant Michael" uid="26290" visible="true" version="2" changeset="87062" timestamp="2008-02-09T16:31:20Z">
<nd ref="246813139" />
<nd ref="246813140" />
<nd ref="246813141" />
<nd ref="246813142" />
<nd ref="246813139" />
<tag k="amenity" v="parking" />
<tag k="created_by" v="Potlatch 0.7" />
</way>
<!-- 略 -->
</osm>

常用数据处理

裁剪

以下两种过滤方法可实现裁剪。

  • FilterBox(float left, float top, float right, float bottom,bool completeWays)
  • FilterSpatial(IPolygon polygon, bool completeWays)

其中,FilterBox()以边框过滤,需设置左、上、右、下的经纬度。FilterSpatial()以ploygon裁剪,保留polygon以内的所有对象,该方法需要引用OsmSharp.Geo。completeWays默认为false,true和false的区别如下图。(红色为设置为true的结果,绿色为设置为false的结果)
不同completeWays裁剪的结果
示例:

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using (var fileStreamSource = File.OpenRead("luxembourg-latest.osm.pbf"))
{
using (var fileStreamTarget = File.Open("clip.osm", FileMode.Create))
{
// 创建StreamSource
var source = new PBFOsmStreamSource(fileStreamSource);
// 创建StreamTarget
var target = new XmlOsmStreamTarget(fileStreamTarget);
// 1.以边框过滤
//var filtered = source.FilterBox(6.238002777099609f, 49.72076145492323f, 6.272850036621093f, 49.69928180928878f);

// 2.以polygon过滤
var polygon = GetPolygonFromGeoJson("polygon.geojson");
var filtered = source.FilterSpatial(polygon, true);
target.RegisterSource(filtered);
target.Pull();
}
}

GetPolygonFromGeoJson(string fileName)方法如下,需添加以下引用。

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using GeoAPI.Geometries;
using NetTopologySuite.Features;
using Newtonsoft.Json;

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/// <summary>
/// 从GeoJson中获取Polygon对象
/// </summary>
/// <param name="fileName">文件名</param>
/// <returns></returns>
private static IPolygon GetPolygonFromGeoJson(string fileName)
{
using (var stream = new StreamReader(fileName))
{
var jsonSerializer = new NetTopologySuite.IO.GeoJsonSerializer();
var features = jsonSerializer.Deserialize(new JsonTextReader(stream));
return features.Features[0].Geometry as IPolygon;
}
}

数据库操作

SQLServer

OsmSharp-GitHub上有两种方式从/向SQL Server数据库读取/写入OSM数据。

OsmSharp.Db.SQLServer.dll

使用sqlserver-dataprovider软件包,以SQL Server作为OpenStreetMap数据库。从/向SQL Server数据库读取/写入OSM数据。需添加引用”OsmSharp.Db.SQLServer.dll”,最新的GitHub上找不到这个文件,我上传到自己的GitHub了,点击即可下载。
OsmSharp.Db.SQLServer.dll

向SQL Server数据库写入OSM数据

实时数据(Snapshot)和历史数据(History)的插入方法一致,只是数据表的结构不一样。具体的数据表结构请查看GitHub中的SQL语句。

历史数据(History*)的导入,会因为id重复,而导致导入数据失败!!!

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// 连接字符串
string conStr = "Server=*;Database=*;User Id=*;Password=*;MultipleActiveResultSets=true;";
// 启用日志记录
OsmSharp.Logging.Logger.LogAction = (origin, level, message, parameters) =>
{
Console.WriteLine("[{0}-{3}]:{1} - {2}", origin, level, message, DateTime.Now.ToString());
};
// 连接数据库并插入数据
using (var connection = new SqlConnection(conStr))
{
connection.Open();
// 创建数据表
Tools.SnapshotDbCreateAndDetect(connection);
// 删除数据表内容
Tools.SnapshotDbDeleteAll(connection);
using (var stream = File.OpenRead("luxembourg-latest.osm.pbf"))
{
var source = new PBFOsmStreamSource(stream);
var target = new SnapshotDbStreamTarget(conStr, true);
// 插入数据
target.RegisterSource(source);
target.Pull();
}
}

输出的日志:

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[Schema.Tools-2017/5/12 13:32:47]:information - Delete all data in snapshot database schema...
[SnapshotDbStreamTarget-2017/5/12 13:32:53]:information - Inserting 1000000 records into node.
[SnapshotDbStreamTarget-2017/5/12 13:33:14]:information - Inserting 80777 records into node_tags.
[SnapshotDbStreamTarget-2017/5/12 13:33:22]:information - Inserting 100000 records into way.
[SnapshotDbStreamTarget-2017/5/12 13:33:23]:information - Inserting 354601 records into way_tags.
[SnapshotDbStreamTarget-2017/5/12 13:33:28]:information - Inserting 1122157 records into way_nodes.
[SnapshotDbStreamTarget-2017/5/12 13:33:43]:information - Inserting 100000 records into way.
[SnapshotDbStreamTarget-2017/5/12 13:33:44]:information - Inserting 256525 records into way_tags.
[SnapshotDbStreamTarget-2017/5/12 13:33:47]:information - Inserting 888866 records into way_nodes.
[SnapshotDbStreamTarget-2017/5/12 13:33:59]:information - Flushing remaining data...
[SnapshotDbStreamTarget-2017/5/12 13:33:59]:information - Inserting 721051 records into node.
[SnapshotDbStreamTarget-2017/5/12 13:34:15]:information - Inserting 55585 records into node_tags.
[SnapshotDbStreamTarget-2017/5/12 13:34:16]:information - Inserting 23718 records into way.
[SnapshotDbStreamTarget-2017/5/12 13:34:16]:information - Inserting 52142 records into way_tags.
[SnapshotDbStreamTarget-2017/5/12 13:34:16]:information - Inserting 282298 records into way_nodes.
[SnapshotDbStreamTarget-2017/5/12 13:34:19]:information - Inserting 2511 records into relation.
[SnapshotDbStreamTarget-2017/5/12 13:34:20]:information - Inserting 14759 records into relation_tags.
[SnapshotDbStreamTarget-2017/5/12 13:34:20]:information - Inserting 146095 records into relation_members.
[SnapshotDbStreamTarget-2017/5/12 13:34:22]:information - Database connection closed.

实时数据的表结构和插入后的数据如下图:
实时数据的表结构和插入后的数据

从SQL Server数据库中读取OSM数据
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// 连接字符串
string conStr = "Server=*;Database=*;User Id=*;Password=*;MultipleActiveResultSets=true;";
using (var connection = new SqlConnection(conStr))
{
connection.Open();
// 从数据库中读取OSM数据
var source = new SnapshotDbStreamSource(conStr);
int nodes = 0, ways = 0, relations = 0;
foreach (var osmGeo in source)
{
if (osmGeo.Type == OsmGeoType.Node)
{
nodes++;
}
if (osmGeo.Type == OsmGeoType.Way)
{
ways++;
}
if (osmGeo.Type == OsmGeoType.Relation)
{
relations++;
}
}
Console.WriteLine("There are {0} nodes, {1} ways, {2} relations.", nodes, ways, relations);
}
// 输出:There are 1721051 nodes, 223718 ways, 2511 relations.

OsmSharp.Data.SQLServer.dll

使用data-providers软件包,可以下载“OsmSharp.Data.SQLServer.dll”文件,添加引用,也可以用NuGet搜索“OsmSharp.SQLServer”安装。

最好使用NuGet安装,这样会自动添加对应版本的OsmSharp库,否则可能出现某种问题。以下是本文所对应的版本号。

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<packages>
<package id="OsmSharp" version="4.2.0.723" targetFramework="net452" />
<package id="OsmSharp.SQLServer" version="4.2.0.723" targetFramework="net452" />
</packages>
SQL Server数据库写入OSM数据

history.pbf
OsmSharp.Data.SQLServer.dll并没有对id作限制,因此有重复id的历史数据也可以直接写入数据库中。

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string conStr = "Server=*;Database=*;User Id=*;Password=*;MultipleActiveResultSets=true;";
using (var connection = new SqlConnection(conStr))
{
connection.Open();
// 删除原有数据表
SQLServerSchemaTools.Remove(connection);
// 创建数据表
SQLServerSchemaTools.CreateAndDetect(connection);
// 实时数据
// using (Stream stream = File.OpenRead("luxembourg-latest.osm.pbf"))
// 历史数据
using (Stream stream = File.OpenRead("history.pbf"))
{
var source = new PBFOsmStreamSource(stream);
var target = new SQLServerOsmStreamTarget(connection);
// 插入数据
target.RegisterSource(source);
target.Pull();
}
}

下图是历史数据写入的结果,可以看到有重复的id。
历史数据写入结果

SQL Server数据库读取OSM数据

OsmSharp.Data.SQLServer.dll好像并不能从SQL Server数据库中读取OSM数据。

路径规划

Itinero

ltinero:.NET的路径规划项目。

  • Itinero.IO.OSM:使用OSM数据
  • Itinero.IO.Shape:使用shapefile
  • Itinero.IO.Geo:使用NTS

关键类:RouterDbRouterProfiles 和 RouterPoint

  • RouterDb: Manages the data of one routing network. It holds all data in RAM or uses a memory mapping strategy to load data on demand. It holds all the network geometry, meta data and topology.
  • Router: The main facade for all routing functionality available. It will decide the best algorithm to use based on a combination of what’s requested and what data is available in the RouterDb.
  • Profiles: Definitions of vehicle and their behaviour that can traverse the routing network.
  • RouterPoint: A location on the routing network to use as a start or endpoint of a route. It’s defined by an edge-id and an offset-value uniquely identifying it’s location on the network.

示例

下面通过一个简单的示例介绍如何使用OSM数据做路径规划。

通过NuGet安装Itinero和Itinero.IO.OSM,添加引用

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using Itinero;
using Itinero.IO.Osm;
using Itinero.LocalGeo;
using Itinero.Osm.Vehicles;

加载OSM数据

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// 加载OSM数据
var routerDb = new RouterDb();
using (var stream = File.OpenRead("beijing.osm.pbf"))
{
routerDb.LoadOsmData(stream, Vehicle.Car);
}

创建Router

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var router = new Router(routerDb);

计算

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var route = router.Calculate(Vehicle.Car.Fastest(), new Coordinate(39.9225f, 116.3669f), new Coordinate(39.9066f, 116.4053f));

// Vehicle
// public static readonly Profiles.Vehicle Car;
// public static readonly Profiles.Vehicle Pedestrian;
// public static readonly Profiles.Vehicle Bicycle;
// public static readonly Profiles.Vehicle Moped;
// public static readonly Profiles.Vehicle MotorCycle;
// public static readonly Profiles.Vehicle SmallTruck;
// public static readonly Profiles.Vehicle BigTruck;
// public static readonly Profiles.Vehicle Bus;

结果

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// route.TotalDistance; // 距离
// route.TotalTime; // 时间
// route.ToGeoJson(); // 转为GeoJson格式:string
// route.WriteGeoJson();// 写入GeoJson文件
// ......

将结果写入GeoJson文件后,添加到geojson.io,计算出的路径如下图

路径规划GeoJson

实际应用

上述示例对于小区域、城市或国家而言,没什么问题,但是当加载大面积数据时,请使用以下方法。

  1. 处理原始数据并写入磁盘。
  2. 从磁盘加载预处理的数据并将其用于路径规划。

加载原始数据

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var routerDb = new RouterDb();
using (var stream = File.OpenRead("beijing.osm.pbf"))
{
routerDb.LoadOsmData(stream, Vehicle.Car);
}

将routerDb实例写入到磁盘:

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using (var stream = File.Create("osmfile.routing"))
{
routerDb.Serialize(stream);
}

加载routerDb

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using (var stream = File.OpenRead("osmfile.routing"))
{
var routerDb = RouterDb.Deserialize(stream, RouterDbProfile.NoCache);
}

计算

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var router = new Router(routerDb);

var profile = Vehicle.Car.Fastest();
var routerPoint1 = router.TryResolve(profile, 39.9225f, 116.3669f);
if(routerPoint1.IsError)
{
// do something or retry.
}
var routerPoint2 = router.TryResolve(profile, 39.9066f, 116.4053f);
if (routerPoint2.IsError)
{
// do something or retry.
}
var route = router.TryCalculate(Vehicle.Car.Fastest(),
routerPoint1.Value, routerPoint2.Value);
if(route.IsError)
{
// do something or retry.
}

更过关于路径规划的内容请参考Itinero-GitHub


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